Dynamic Models of Golf Clubs

MI Friswell (University of Wales Swansea), JE Mottershead (Liverpool University) & MG Smart (University of Wales Swansea)

Sports Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 1998, pp. 41-50


This paper aims to improve a finite element model of a golf club by using measured experimental natural frequencies and mode shapes. Only the low frequency dynamics of the club are considered, making the improved model suitable for studies of the dynamics of the swing. The shaft was modelled using beam elements and the head was represented as a rigid body. The natural frequencies of the club were measured and compared to those predicted from the analytical model. The flexibility properties of the shaft were modelled using the generic parameter approach. These parameters and the inertia properties of the head were estimated from the measured data to produce an improved analytical model. Subset selection was employed to determine those characteristics of the club that were poorly modelled. The inertia about the shaft axis and the shaft flexibility, particularly the torsional stiffness, have been identified as the most likely to be in error.

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Link to paper using doi:10.1046/j.1460-2687.1998.00001.x

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